Pastoralists in the Modern World Class 9 History Chapter 5

Important Questions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 5 Pastoralists in the Modern World

Question 1.
Who are nomads ?
Answer: Nomads are the people who move from one place to another in search of food and fodder.

Question 2.
Name any two nomad communities of India.
Answer:

  • Bakarwals
  • Gaddi

Question 3.
Mention the states to which the following communities belong:
(a) Gujjar Bakarwals (b) Gaddi
Answer:
(a) Jammu and Kashmir.
(b) Himachal Pradesh.

Question 4.
Name any two pastoral communities of South India.
Answer:

  • The Gollas
  • The Kurumas.

Question 5.
Who were the Dhangara ?
Answer:
The Dhangars were an important pastoral community of Maharashtra. Most of them
were shepherds, some were blanket weavers, and still others, were buffalo herders.

Question 6.
How is movement of Dhangar different than that of Gujjars?
Answer:
Dhangar’s movement is guided by the annual cycle of monsoon whereas Gujjar’s movement depends upon change of season i.e winter and summer.

Question 7.
Name any two pastoralist communities of Andhra Pradesh.
Answer:

  • Gollas
  • Kurumas

Question 8.
Name the act through whichuncultivated lands were taken over and given to select individuals.
Answer:
Waste Land Rules

Question 9.
Name any two pastoral communities of the Himalayas which followed an annual pattern of cyclical movement.
Answer:

  • Bhotiyas
  • Sherpas
  • Kinnauris
  • Gujjars

Question 10.
Who were the Banjaros ? Name any two states where they were found.
Answer:
The Banjaras were nomads who used to move from one region to another in search of good pasturel and. They were found in

  • Uttar Pradesh
  • Rajasthan

Question 11.
Name the Act which was passed by the British government to limit the movement of the nomadic people. Mention any two features of the Act.
Answer:
The Criminal Tribes Act

  • By this Act, many communities of craftsmen, traders and pastoralists were classified as Criminal Tribes.
  • Under this Act, various restrictions were put on their movement.

Question 12.
Name a pastoral community of Rajasthan.
Answer:
The Raikas.

Question 13.
‘Under the Colonial rule, the life of the pastoralists changed dramatically. Explain with two examples.
Answer:

  •  Their grazing grounds shrank because their movements were regulated.
  •  By the Criminal Tribes Act many communities were classified as the Criminal Tribes.

Question 14.
Name any two nomadic communities of Africa.
Answer:

  •  Bedouins
  •  Maasai

Question 15.
What are the major activities of the nomadic communities of Africa?
Answer:

  • They raise cattle, camels, goats, sheep and donkeys.
  • They sell milk, meat, animal skin and wool.

Question 16.
Name a pastoral community of Kenya.
Answer:
Maasai.

Question 17.
“Large areas of grazing land were turned into game reserves.” Mention its two impacts on pastoral communities.
Answer:

  • Pastoralists were not allowed to enter these reserves.
  • The loss of the finest grazing lands and water resources created pressure on the small area of land that the Maasai were confined within.

Question 18.
The “Maasai society was divided into two social categories”. Name two categories.
Answer:
The Elders and Warriors.

Question 1.
Explain the movement of the Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir.
Or
Explain the annual movement of the Gujjar Bakarwals. [CBSE 2015]
Answer:
The Gujjar Bakarwals migrated to Jammu and Kashmir in the 19th century in search of pastures for their animals.
Winter : When the high mountains were covered with snow and there was lack of pastures at the high altitude, they moved to low hills of the Shiwalik. The dry scrub forests here provided pastures for their herds. By the end of April, they began their northern march for their summer grazing grounds.

Summer : With the onset of summer, the snow melted and the mountain sides became lush green. By the end of September, the Bakarwals started their backward journey.

Question 2.
“Under the colonial rule, the life of pastoralists changed dramatically.” Mention any four factors responsible for this change.
Or
How did the life of pastoralists change dramatically during the colonial period ? Explain. [CBSE March 2012, 2013]
Answer:

  •  After colonialisation, their mobility was restricted. Now the people had limited area to move.
  • The new rulers encouraged settlement which had an adverse impact on the herds and the people.
  • The colonies were to be used as a source of raw material, so the new rulers encouraged commercial
    agriculture. The pastures were converted into big farms.
  • To exploit the natural resources of their colonies, the European countries started building roads and railway tracks. This resulted in the loss of pastures.

Question 3.
How did Hie pastoralists cope with the changes brought by the colonial rule ? Explain.
Answer:

  • Reduction in the number of cattle: When the grazing lands were taken over and converted into fields, this forced many nomads to reduce the member of cattle in their herds.
  • New pastures : Defining of boundaries forced many nomads to search for new pastures. For example, after the partition of India in 1947, the camel and sheep herding Raikas, for instance, could no longer move into Sindh and graze their camels on the banks of the Indus, as they had done earlier. The new political boundaries between India and Pakistan stopped their movement. So they had to find new places to go. In recent years, they have been migrating to Haryana where sheep can graze on agricultural fields after the harvests are cut. This is the time that the fields need manure that the animals provide.
  • New occupations : Over the years, some richer pastoralists began buying land and settling down, giving up their nomadic life. Some became settled peasants cultivating land others took to more extensive trading. Many poor pastoralists, on the other , hand, borrowed money from moneylenders to survive. At times, they lost their cattle and sheep and became labourers, working on fields or in small towns.

Question 4.
Why the Colonial government introduced the Waste Land Rules ? Explain the impact of Waste Land Rules on the pastoral communities.
Answer:
(a) Waste land Rules : Under this, uncultivated land was brought under cultivation.
Reasons :

  • Revenue : The basic aim was to increase land revenue because by expanding cultivation Government could increase its revenue collection.
  • Raw materials : Crops like jute, cotton and indigo were used as raw material in England. So the British government wanted to bring more and more areas under these crops.

Impact on the lives of the pastoralists :

  • After the Act, the mobility of nomads was restricted.
  • Under the Act the grazing land was given to big landlords. Due to this nomads’ grazing grounds shrank.
  •  Due to shrinking grazing grounds, the agricultural stock of the nomads declined and their trade and crafts were adversely affected.

Question 5.
Why was Criminal Tribes Act passed ? Explain its impact on the pastoral communities.
Answer:

  • British officials were suspicious of nomadic people. They distrusted mobile craftsmen and traders who hawked their goods in villages and pastoralists who changed their places of residence every season, moving in search of good pastures for their herds.
  • The colonial government wanted to rule over a settled population. They wanted the rural people to live in villages, in fixed places with fixed rights on particular fields. Such a population was easy to identify and control.
  • Those who were settled were seen as peaceable and law abiding: those who were nomadic were considered to be criminals.
  • Through this Act the pastoral communities were not allowed to move freely. This restricted their grazing grounds and the deterioration of animal stock.

Question 6.
Give reasons to explain why the Maasai community lost their grazing lands.
Answer:

  • Colonialism : In the late nineteenth century, the European imperial powers scrambled for territorial possessions in Africa, slicing up the region into different colonies. In 1885, Maasailand was cut into half by an international boundary between British Kenya and German Tanganyika.
  • Expansion of Cultivation : From the late nineteenth century, the British colonial government in East Africa also encouraged local peasant communities to expand cultivation. As cultivation expanded, pasturelands were turned into cultivated fields.
  • Setting up of reserves: Large areas of grazing land were also turned into game reserves like the Maasai Mara and Samburu National Park in Kenya and Serengeti Park in Tanzania. Pastoralists were not allowed to enter these reserves; they could neither hunt animals nor graze their herds in these areas.
  • Deterioration of the quality of pastures : The loss of the finest grazing lands and water resources created pressure on the small area of land that the Maasai were confined within. Continuous grazing within a small area inevitably meant deterioration of the quality of pastures.

Question 7.
Explain the impact of droughts on the life of pastoralists.
Or
‘From the colonial period, the Maasai were bound down to a area.’ Explain the impact of being bound on the Maasai people.
Or
How do drought affect the life of pastoralists ? Explain. [CBSE March 2012, 2013]
Answer:

  • Limited grazing area : Because of the restrictions on the movement of- nomads, they were bound down to a fixed area. They were cut off from the best grazing lands, and forced to live within a semi-arid tract prone to frequent droughts.
  • Death of animals : Since lots of restrictions were imposed on their movements, so they could not move to places where pastures were available. Due to this, there was shortage of fodder. A large number of Maasai cattle died of starvation and disease.

Question 8.
“Under the colonial rule, the life of pastoralists changed dramatically.” Mention any four factors responsible for this change.
Or
How did the life of pastoralists change dramatically during the colonial period ? Explain. [CBSE March 2012, 2013]
Answer.

  • After colonialisation, their mobility was restricted. Now the people had limited area to move.
  • The new rulers encouraged settlement which had an adverse impact on the herds and the people.
  • The colonies were to be used as a source of raw material, so the new rulers encouraged commercial
    agriculture. The pastures were converted into big farms.
  • To exploit the natural resources of their colonies, the European countries started building roads and railway tracks. This resulted in the loss of pastures.

Question 1.
Describe the cycle of seasonal movement of the Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh.
Answer:

  • They spent their winter in the low hills ; of the Shiwalik range, grazing their flocks in the scrub forests.
  • By April, they moved north, and spent the summer in Lahul and Spiti. When the snow melted and the high passes were clear, many of them moved on to higher mountain meadows.
  • By September, they began their return movement.
  • On the way, they stopped once again
    in the villages of Lahul and Spiti, reaping their summer harvest, and sowing their winter crop.
  • Then they descended with their flock to their winter grazing grounds, on the Shiwalik hills.
  • Next April, once again, they began their march with their goats and sheep, to the summer meadows.

Question 2.
Explain the annual cycle of seasonal movement of the Dhangars.
Answer:

  • The Dhangars were an important ! pastoral community of Maharashtra.
  • The Dhangar community used to stay in the semi-arid central plateau of | Maharashtra during the monsoon.
  • Due to low rainfall, only dry crops could be grown there. In the monsoon, this region became a vast grazing ground for the Dhangar flocks.
  • By October, the Dhangars harvested their dry crops. During this season, there was shortage of grazing grounds so the Dhangars had to move towards the west.
  • By mid-September, they used to reach the Konkan. In this region, the locals used to welcome them as the flocks of Dhangars provided manure to the field.
  • With the onset of the monsoon, the Dhangars, after collecting supplies of rice and other foodgrains, used to leave the Konkan.

Question 3.
Under colonial rule, the life of pastoralists changed dramatically. Explain.
Or
Explain the various laws introduced by the British and explain how these laws changed the lives of the pastoralists. [CBSE2011,2012,2013]
Answer:
(a) Waste land Rules : Under this, uncultivated land was brought under cultivation.The basic aim was to increase land revenue because by expanding cultivation Government could increase its revenue collection.
Impact on the lives of the pastora- lists :

  • After the Act, the mobility of nomads was restricted.
  • Under the Act the grazing land was given to big landlords. Due to this nomads’ grazing grounds shrank.
  • Due to shrinking grazing grounds, the agricultural stock of the nomads declined and their trade and crafts were adversely affected.

(b) Forest Acts: Under the Forest Acts forest were classified into :

  • Reserved Forests
  • Protected forests

Impact on the lives of the pastora- lists :

  •  They were now prevented from entering many forests. So there was a reduction in their grazing grounds.
  • After the laws, their movements were regulated.

(c) Criminal Tribes Act: In 1871, the colonial government in India passed the Criminal Tribes Act. By this Act, many communities of craftsmen, traders and pastoralists were classified as Criminal Tribes. They were stated to be criminal by nature and birth. Once this Act came into force, these communities were expected to live only in notified village settlements. They were not allowed to move out without a permit. The village police kept a continuous watch on them.

This restricted their grazing grounds. Their agricultural stock declined, and their trades and crafts were adversely affected.
(d) Grazing Tax: The Grazing tax was imposed on the pastoralists. Pastoralists had to pay tax on every animal they grazed on the pastures. In most pastoral tracts of India, grazing tax was introduced in the mid-nineteenth century.

Impact on the lives of pastora-lists:

  • As the tax had to be paid in cash so pastoralists started selling their animals.
  • The heavy burden of taxes had an adverse impact on their economic status. Now most of the pastoralists started taking loans from the money lenders.

Question 4.
Give reasons to explain why the Maasai community lost their grazing lands. [CBSE March 2011,2013]
Or
Why did the Maasai face the problem of continuous loss of their grazing lands under the colonial rule? Give reasons. [CBSE March 2012]
Or
How did the new territorial boundaries and restrictions suddenly change the lives of pastoralists in Africa ? Explain any five points. [CBSE March 2013]
Or
Give any four reasons to explain why cattle stock of Maasais decreased under colonial rule ? [CBSE 2011]
Answer.

  • Closing the borders : In the late nineteenth century, the Europeanimperial powers scrambled for territorial possessions in Africa, slicing up the region into different colonies. In 1885, Maasailand was cut into half with an international boundary between British Kenya and German Tanganyika. Subsequently, the best grazing lands were gradually taken over for the White settlement and the Maasai were pushed into a small area in South Kenya and North Tanzania. The Maasai lost about 60 per cent of their pre-colonial lands. They were confined to an arid zone with uncertain rainfall, and poor pastures.
  • Expansion of Cultivation : From the late nineteenth century, the British colonial government in East Africa also encouraged local peasant communities to expand cultivation. As cultivation expanded, pasturelands were turned into cultivated fields. In pre-colonial times, the Maasai pastoralists had dominated their agricultural neighbours, both economically and politically. By the end of colonial rule, the situation had reversed.
  • Setting up of reserves: Large areas of grazing land were also turned into game reserves like the Maasai Mara and Samburu National Park in Kenya and Serengeti Park in Tanzania. Pastoralists were not allowed to enter these reserves; they could neither hunt animals nor graze their herds in these areas. Very often, these reserves were in areas that had traditionally been regular grazing grounds for the Maasai herds. The Serengeti National Park, for instance, was created over 14,760 km. of the Maasai grazing land.
  • Deterioration of the quality of pastures : The loss pf the finest grazing lands and water resources created pressure on the small area of land that the Maasai were confined within. Continuous grazing within a small area inevitably meant a deterioration of the qualify of pastures. Fodder was always in short supply. Feeding the cattle became a persistent problem.
  • Droughts and death of animals : Since lots of restrictions were imposed on the movement of pastoralists, so they could not move to places where pastures were available. Due to this, there was shortage of fodder. A large number of Maasai cattle died of starvation and disease.

Question 1.
“The Pastoral groups had sustained by a careful consideration of a host of factors”. Explain these factors.
Answer:

  • Climatic Factor: They had to judge the climatic conditions of the regions where they wanted to move. They had to judge how long the herds could stay in one area, and where they could find water and pasture.
  • Timing: They needed to calculate the timing of their movements, and ensure that they could move through different territories.
  • Relationships : They had to set up a relationship with farmers so that the herds could graze in harvested fields, and manure the soil.

Question 2.
“In the nineteenth century, African pastoralists could move over vast areas in search of pastures. When the pastures were exhausted in one place, they moved to a different area to graze their cattle. From the late ninteenth century, the colonial government began imposing various restrictions on their mobility.” Explain its impact on the pastoralists of Africa.
Answer:

  • Special permits were issued to the people. They were not allowed to move out with their stock without special permits. And it was difficult to get permits without trouble and harassment.
  • Pastoralists were also not allowed to enter the markets in the White areas. In many regions, they were prohibited fromparticipating in any form of trade. So now they were fully dependent on their stock.
  • When restrictions were imposed on pastoral movements, grazing lands came to be continuously used, and the quality of pastures declined. This, in turn created a further shortage of forage for animals, and the deterioration of animal stock.
  • Now most of the nomads were forced to live within a semi-arid tract prone to frequent droughts.

Question 1.
By which Act many pastoralist communities were classified as criminal Tribes ? Was it fare to declare them as criminals ?
Answer:
Criminal Tribe Act. No it was not fare.

Question 2.
Why did feeding the cattle become a persistant problem for the Massais ?
Answer:
Because continuous grazing in small area deteriorated the quality of pasture.

Question 3.
“Pastoralists of Africa were not allowed to enter the markets in white areas”. Which immoral value is being reflected?
Answer:

  • Discrimination
  • Inequality

Question 4.
Do you think all the grazing lands or forests should be transformed into cultivable forms ? Justify your answer.
Answer.
No, all the grazing lands or forests should not be transformed into cultivable lands because this will disturb the ecological balance.

Question 5.
‘Many ecologists believe that in dry regions and in the mountains, pastoralism is still ecologically the most viable form of life’. Do you agree? Justify by giving reasons.
Answer:
Yes I do agree that in dry regions and in the mountains, pastoralism is still ecologically the most viable form of life because

  • In winter, when the high mountains are covered with snow the pastoralists need to move in the low hills in search of pastures.
  • The people of central plateau of Maharashtra need to move out of the plateau during the dry season in search of pastures. They migrate towards the Konkan region manuring the fields of the Konkan farmers.
  • In the hilly areas or dry regions if the pastoralists do not move the , continuous intense grazing of the pastures will lead to deterioration of pastures.

Question 6.
“Maasai the Pastoralist of Africa were discriminated by the White people.” Explain.
Answer:
Pastoralists were also not allowed to enter the markets in white areas. In many regions, they were prohibited from participating in any form of trade. White settlers and European colonists saw pastoralists as dangerous and savage people with whom all contact had to be minimised. Cutting off all links was, however, never really possible, because white colonists had to depend on black labour to bore mines and, build roads and towns.

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