Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 4 Electoral Politics

Question 1.
What are elections? [CBSE 2014,15]
Answer:
It is a mechanism by which people can choose their representatives at regular intervals, and change them if they wish to do so.

Question 2.
“Elections are considered essential for any representative democracy.” Why?
Answer:

  • In a representative democracy, people rule through their representatives.
  •  It gives an opportunity to the people to decide, who will make laws for them.

Question 3.
What is a constituency?[CBSE 2014,15]
Answer:
For elections, the entire country is divided into fixed electoral areas with a body of registred voters. These areas are called constituencies.

Question 4.
Mention any two disadvantages of having political competition.
Answer:

  • It creates a sense of disunity and factionalism.
  • Parties and candidates often use dirty tricks to win elections.

Question 5.
What is the importance of electoral competition?
Answer:

  • Regular electoral competition provides incentives to political parties and leaders. They know that if they raise issues that people want to be raised, their popularity and chances of victory will increase in the next elections. But if they fail to satisfy the voters with their work, they will not be able to win again.
  • If a political party is motivated only by desire to be in power, even then, it will be forced to serve the people.

Question 6.
What is an Electoral Roll or Voter’s List? What is its importance?
Answer:
It is a list which carries the names of the persons who are eligible to vote.
It is important because a voter can caste his/her vote if his/her name is in the voter’s list.

Question 7.
What is Universal Adult Franchise?
Answer:
Every citizen of India who is 18 years of age or above has the right to vote without any discrimination of caste, creed, colour, sex, religion etc.

Question 8.
What kind of people can he denied to vote in India?
Answer:
Some criminals and persons with unsound mind.

Question 9.
Mention any two points relating to the Model Code of Conduct for election campaigns.
Answer:

  • No candidate can use any place of worship for election propaganda.
  • No party can use government vehicle for elections.

Question 10.
What is the difference between a voter and a candidate?
Answer:
Voter: A person who elects the candidates is a voter. All the citizens, who attain the age of 18 years become voters.
Candidate: A person who contests the election is known as a candidate. In order to be a candidate, the minimum age is 25 years.

Question 11.
What is an EVM? [CBSE 2014]
Answer:
It is an Electronic Voting Machine (EVM) which is used to record votes. The machine shows the names of the candidates and the symbols.

Question 12.
What is the importance of elections in a democracy?
Answer:

  • Elections are the axis of democracy.
  • If the government is not working according to the wishes of the people, the voters can change it through elections.

Question 13.
Define Election Commission.
Answer:
The entire process of elections in our country is conducted, controlled and supervised by an independent body called the Election Commission.

Question 14.
Mention two functions of the Election Commission.
Answer:

  • It grants recognition to political parties.
  • It allots symbols to candidates and political parties.

Question 15.
Who appoints the Chief Election Commissioner?
Answer:
The President of India.

Question 16.
Mention any two provisions which ensure the independence of the Election Commission.
Answer:

  • The Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) is appointed by the President of India. But once appointed, he/she is not answerable to the President or the Government.
  • It has a fixed tenure of five years.

Question 17.
What is ballot paper? Name the machine by which these papers have been replaced.
Answer:
A ballot paper is a sheet of paper on which the names of the contesting candidates along with the party name and symbols are fisted. These are being replaced by the electronic voting machines.

Question 18.
Why are the candidates required to give a detailed statement of their property and other details?
Answer:

  • This provides an opportunity to the voters to make their decisions and to choose the right candidate.
  • The candidates also provide details of the assets and liabilities. Through this, the voters can judge how much the candidate has earned from one election to another.

Question 19.
When government officers work in election duty, are they under the control of the Election Commission or the Government? Give reason.
Answer:
They work under the control of Election Commission. This is done to conduct free and fair elections, so that the party in power is not in a position to misuse the government machinery.

Question 1.
(i) What are elections?
(ii) “Elections are considered essential for any representative demo cracy.” Why?
(iii) What is a constituency?
Answer:
(i) It is a mechanism by which people can choose their representatives at regular intervals and change them if they wish to do so.
(ii) (a) In a representative democracy, people rule through their representatives. ,
(b) It gives an opportunity to the people to decide who will make laws for them.
(iii) For elections, the entire country is divided into fixed electoral areas with a body of registered voters. These areas are called constituencies.

Question 2.
What makes elections in India democratic? Explain.[CBSE 2013,14,15]
Answer:

  • An Independent Election Commission: In our country, elections are conducted by an independent and a very powerful Election Commission (EC). It enjoys the same kind of independence that the judiciary enjoys. The Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) is appointed by the President Of India. But once appointed, the Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) is not answerable to the President or the government. Even if the ruling party or the government does not like what the Commission does, it is virtually impossible for it to remove the CEC.
  • Popular Participation: In India, the poor, illiterate and underprivileged people vote in larger proportion as compared to the rich and the privileged sections. This is in contrast to western democracies. For example, in the United States of America, poor people, African-Americans and Hispanics vote much less than the rich and the white people.
  • Acceptance of election outcome: The outcome of India’s elections speaks for itself. The ruling parties routinely lose elections in India, both at the national and the state levels. In fact, in every two out of the three, elections held in the last fifteen years, the ruling party lost the power.

Question 3.
Mention any three provisions which makes Election Commission an independent body.
Answer:

  • The Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) is appointed by the President of India. But once appointed, the Chief Election Commissioner is not answerable to the President or the government.
  • During the election period, the EC can order the government to follow some guidelines, to prevent use and misuse of governmental power to enhance its chances to win elections, or to transfer some government officials.
  • When on election duty, government officers work under the control of the EC and not the government.

Question 1.
Explain the role of the Election Commission in free and fair elections. [CBSE 2013]
Answer:
Functions of the Election Commission of India:

  • Allotment of Election Symbols: The political parties of national standing are allotted permanent election symbols. These symbols help even an ordinary man to recognise the different parties instantly.
  • Preparation of Electoral Rolls: Electoral Rolls are prepared in which the name, father’s name, age and sex of the voters are clearly mentioned.
  • Delimitation of Constituencies: The whole area where elections are held, is divided into so many clear-cut constituencies, so that flections are held in an organised way.
  • Fixing the Election Dates: The Election date is announced so that the voters could easily cast their votes on that particular date.
  • Scrutiny (careful examination) of Nomination Papers: The candidates willing to contest the elections have to file the nominations up to a particular date. Then the Election Commission scrutinizes their papers and accepts or rejects the nomination papers as the case: may be.
  • Checking Undue Interference of the Party-in-Power: Important duty of the Election Commission is to see that the party in power does in no way take an advantage over other parties or individuals.

Question 2.
What is an election? Discuss the importance of elections in a democracy.
Answer:
An election is a contest between different political parties in order to get people’s support. Elections are exceptionally important in a democracy because of the following reasons:

  • Without the elections, a democratic government cannot be set up. It has been rightly said, “ No election, no democracy.”
  • Through elections alone, the people can get rid of their cruel and unpopular government, and in its place, they can elect a new popular government.
  • It is through elections alone that an effective control can be maintained on the executive.
    All the citizens in a modern democracy cannot run the administration. Only their representatives can do it for them. In order to choose such representatives, the elections are a must.

Question 3.
Explain any five conditions for free and fair elections. [CBSE 2014,15]
Answer:

  • One vote one value: Everyone should be able to choose. This means that everyone should have one vote and every vote should have equal value.
  • Multiple choices: There should be something to choose from. Parties and candidates should be free to contest elections and should offer some real choice to the voters.
  • Choice at regular interval: The choice should be offered at regular intervals. Elections must be held regularly after every few years.
  • All should have equal chance of winning: The candidate preferred by the people should get elected.
  • Free and fair elections: Elections should be conducted in a free and fair manner where people can choose as they really wish.

Question 1.
What is election campaign? What is its importance?
Answer:
A political campaign or election campaign is an organized effort by political parties to win the trust of voters.

  • Election campaign provide an opportunity to the voters to know about political parties, their main agenda and policies.
  • It provides opportunity to the political parties to make a direct contact with the voters.
  • During this period the candidates contact their voters, political leaders address election meetings and political parties mobilize their supporters. This is also the period when newspapers and television news are full of election related stories and debates.

Question 2.
How does our Election Law regulate campaigns 1[CBSE March2011,2012]
Answer:
It is necessary to regulate campaign to ensure that every political party and candidate gets a fair and equal chance to compete. According to our election law, no party or candidate can:

  • Bribe or threaten voters.
  • Appeal to them in the name of caste or religion.
  • Use government resources for election campaigns.
  • Spend more than Rs. 25 lakhs in a constituency for a Lok Sabha election or Rs. 10 lakhs in a constituency in an Assembly election.

Question 3.
What is model code of conduct for election campaign? Mention any three provisions of model code of conduct. [CBSE 2014]
Answer:
These are some set of norms which each and every political party is expected to follow during election campaigns.
According to this, no party or candidate can:

  • Use any place of worship for election propaganda;
  • Use government vehicles, air crafts and officials for elections; and
  • Once elections are announced, Ministers shall not lay foundation stones of any projects, take any big policy decisions or make any promises of providing public facilities.

Question 1.
What is a reserved constituency? Why is there need for a reserved constituency? [CBSE 2014]
Answer:
These are the constituencies which are reserved for people who belong to the Scheduled Castes [SC] and Scheduled Tribes [ST]. In a SC reserved constituency only someone who belongs to the Scheduled Castes can contest elections. Similarly only those belonging to the Scheduled Tribes can contest an election from a constituency reserved for ST.
Importance of reserved constituencies-

  • Political equality for weaker sections: Our Constitution entitles every citizen to elect her/his representative and to be elected as a representative. The Constitution makers, however, were worried that in an open electoral competition, certain weaker sections may not stand a good chance to get elected to the Lok Sabha and the state Legislative Assemblies. They may not have the required resources, education and contacts to contest and win elections against others. Those who are influential and resourceful may prevent them from winning elections. If that happens, our Parliament and Assemblies would be deprived of the voice of a significant section of our population. That would make our democracy: less representative and less democratic. So, the makers of our Constitution thought of a special system of reserved constituencies for the weaker sections.
  • Gender equality: Indian society is a male dominating society. So to provide them equal representation one-third of the seats are reserved in rural and urban local bodies for women candidates.

Question 2.
What is principle of universal adult franchise? What is its importance?
Answer:
According to universal adult franchise every citizen of India who is 18 years of age or above has the right to vote irrespective of his caste, colour, sex, gender etc.
Importance-:

  • It provides political equality.
  • Through universal adult franchise all are included in decision making. Different citizens differ from one another in many ways: some are rich, some are poor; some are highly educated, some are not so educated or not educated at all; some are kind, others are not so kind. But all of them are human beings with their own needs and views. That is why all of them deserve to have an equal say in decisions that affect them.

Question 3.
Which moral value is reflected by the universal adult franchise?
Answer:
Equality.

Question 4.
“Sanjay Kumar, a citizen of India was not allowed to caste his vote as he was not having an Election Photo Identity Card (EPIC).” What is the purpose of an EPIC and what were the options available to Sanjay Kumar?
Answer:
The purpose of an Election Photo Identity Card (EPIC) is to make it sure that no one votes for someone else. Sanjay Kumar could have shown any other valid proof like ration card or the driving licence.

Question 5.
When government officials work in election duty, are they under the control of the Election Commission or the Government? Give reason.
Answer:
They work under the control of Election Commission. This is done to conduct free and fair elections, so that the party in power is not a position to misuse the government machinery.

Question 6.
Mention any three provisions of a Model Code of Conduct for election campaigns.
Answer:
According to this-

  • No party or candidate can use any place of worship for election propaganda.
  • Use government vehicles, air crafts and officials for elections; and
  • Once elections are announced, Ministers shall not lay foundation stones of any projects, take any big policy decisions or make any promises of providing public facilities.

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