NCERT Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 10 Law and Social, Justice

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 10 Law and Social, Justice

Question 1
What are the advantages to foreign companies in setting up production in India?
Solution:
India provides cheap labour compared to some other countries. Wages paid to workers in foreign countries are much higher than in India. For lower pay, foreign companies can get long hours of work. Additional expenses such as housing facilities for workers are also fewer in India. Thus, foreign companies can save costs and earn higher profits.

Question 2
Do you think the victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy got justice? Discuss.
Solution:
The victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy did not get justice. The disaster was caused due to gross neglect of safety measures by the management of the factory.

The government of India represented the people to legally claim compensation for the affected people. The government demanded $ 3 billion but had to accept a meager $ 470 million from the Company.
Today, 24 years after the disaster, people of Bhopal are still fighting for justice.

Question 3
What do we mean when we speak of law enforcement? Who is responsible for enforcement? Why is enforcement so important?
Solution:

  1. When we speak of law enforcement, we mean that the provisions of the law must be applied to all and sundry without discrimination.
  2. Government is responsible for law enforcement.
  3. Rights of workers and citizens to be protected.
    • With more industries being set up by both Indians and foreign businesses, there is a greater need for stronger laws.
    • It is all the more important to safeguard our environment.

Question 4.
How can laws ensure that markets work in a manner that is fair? Give two examples to support your answer.
Solution:
Law can ensure that markets work in a manner that is fair by ensuring the enforcement of the law in letter and spirit.

  • Law against hoarding and black marketing must be enforced in such a way that stringent punishment is given to the violators of the law and the hoarded goods must be forfeited.
  • Anti Child Labour Act must be enforced, not a single child must be allowed to work in shops, tea stalls, and restaurants.

Question 5
Write a paragraph on the various roles of the government that you have read about in this unit.
Solution:
The common man is exploited in most societies. When this happens it is the duty of the government to ensure that social justice prevails and all the citizens can establish their rights.

The government has passed many laws to guarantee that workers are not exploited by unscrupulous employers. Payment of Wages Act, 1936; Minimum Wages Act, 1948; Payment of Bonus Act, 1965 is some of the Acts that ensure that workers are not underpaid and exploited.

The government has passed the Factories Act, 1948. This Act regulates health, safety, welfare, and other working conditions of workers in factories. It is enforced by the State Governments through their factory inspectorates.

The Consumer Protection Act ensures that the consumer is not put to risk by the poor quality of products such as electrical appliances, food, and medicines. The Bureau of Indian Standards is a government organization that oversees the quality of products sold.

The government has also passed laws that ensure that essential products such as food grains, sugar, and kerosene are not highly-priced.

The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, was passed to protect the environment and avert health hazards to human beings.

Prohibition of Employment of Young Children protects children from being exploited. No child who has not completed his fourteenth year shall be required or allowed to work in any factory.

The Trade Unions Act, 1926 provides for registration of trade unions with a view to render lawful organisation of labour to enable collective bargaining.

Question 6
How was the environment treated earlier? What has been the change in perception?
Solution:
In 1984, there were very few laws to protect the environment in India. These few laws were not enforced strictly by the government. Industries discharged their waste into water bodies and made it unfit for consumption. The air was polluted with smoke that bellowed from the factories.

This pollution proved to be a health hazard for the people. The Bhopal disaster brought the issue of environmental pollution into focus.

The existing laws did not protect the common man from industrial disasters. Environmental activists insisted on new laws which will protect all the citizens from hazardous pollution of the environment. In response to the demand by the activists and the public, the government introduced new laws on environmental safety.

According to the new laws imposed by the government the polluter will be held accountable for the damage done to the environment.

The Right to Life is a Fundamental Right under Article 21 of the Constitution and it includes the right to the enjoyment of pollution-free water and air for full enjoyment of life.

Question 7
What do you think the famous cartoonist R.K. Laxman is trying to convey in this cartoon? How does it relate to the 2006 law that you read about on page 125?
Solution:
The cartoon shows a young under privileged boy carrying the books of a well-to-do boy who is off to school. This reveals that the boy who is less than 14 years of age has been employed by the woman seen in the picture.

The cartoon emphasizes that young children are being exploited at workplaces. They are made to work for long hours for very little wages. These children are being denied basic education which is very essential for them.

This is a violation of the Child Labour Prevention Act that was passed by the government in 2006. No child who has not completed his fourteenth year shall be required or allowed to work in any factory. The government has passed certain laws that will protect these children from being exploited.

1. Talk to two workers (For example, construction workers, farm workers, factory workers, workers at any shop) to find out if they are receiving the minimum wages laid down by law.

Answer: Students have to do this by themselves.

2. What are the advantages to foreign companies in setting up production in India?

Answer: The advantages to foreign companies in setting up their production in India is as follows:

  1. Foreign companies come to India because of the cheap labour. The wages that the companies pay to workers in foreign countries are far higher than what they have to pay to workers in India.
  2. Low wages and long hours of work.
  3. Minimum additional expenses, such as housing facilities for workers. Thus, companies can save costs and earn higher profits.
  4. Cost cutting can also be done by other more dangerous means, like lowering working conditions, including lower safety measures.

3. Do you think the victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy got justice? Discuss.

Answer: The victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy got some monetary compensation but not justice. It was caused due to gross neglect of safety measures by the factory management. The government represented the people to claim compensation for affected ones. The government demanded 3 billion dollars as compensation, of which the company compensated only 470 million dollars. Today, after so many tears shed due to the tragedy, there are still people seeking justice. So many victims still fail to avail safe drinking water, healthcare facilities and jobs. Many people who were maimed for life have no use for the compensation money. Hence, it can be said that the victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy did not get justice.

4. What do we mean when we speak of law enforcement? Who is responsible for enforcement? Why is enforcement so important?

Answer: Law enforcement means the implementation of law. Government is responsible for enforcement. Enforcement is important when the law seeks to protect the people belonging to the weaker sections from those who are strong and powerful. Enforcement is important to ensure that every worker gets fair wages. When workers are poor or powerless, the fear of losing future earnings or facing reprisals forces them to accept low wages. Employers use this as a tool to pay workers less than a fair wage. In such cases, it is crucial that the laws are enforced.

5. How can laws ensure that markets work in a manner that is fair? Give two examples to support your answer.

Answer: Laws ensure that markets work in a fair manner by protecting the people from unfair practices. The two examples are –

Child Labour Prevention Act: This law states that no child below the age of 14 years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engage in any other hazardous employment.

Right against Exploitation: This law states that no one can be forced to work for low wages or under bondage.

The government has also passed laws to make sure that essential products such as kerosene, food grain, sugar, etc., are not highly-priced. It is imperative to impose such restrictions on people who are marketing these types of products so that people of low economic strata can afford these goods.

6. Imagine yourself to be a worker working in a chemical factory, which has received orders from the government to move to a different site 100 kms away from the present location. Write about how your life would change? Read out your responses in the classroom.

Students should do this exercise with the help of the teacher

7. Write a paragraph on the various roles of the government that you have read about in this unit.

Answer: The government plays the following roles:

  1. Providing public facilities like healthcare, sanitation and water supply ensures that these are not overtaken by private enterprises.
  2. Enforcing the laws against child labour.
  3. Fixing minimum wages for workers and revising it from time to time.
  4. Enforcing laws regarding safety at the workplace.
  5. Enforcing laws regarding the safety of the environment.
  6. Protecting the interests of consumers against overpricing and standard products.
  7. Punishing organisations which do not follow policies to protect the environment against pollution.

8. What are the sources of environmental pollution in your area? Discuss with respect to (a) air; (b) water and (c) soil. What are the steps being taken to reduce pollution? Can you suggest some other measures?

Answer: The various sources of environmental pollution in our area are as follows:

(a) Smoke from factories and vehicles that run on petrol or diesel is the main reason behind air pollution.

(b) The main cause of water pollution is chemical fertilizers and garbage from factories, farms and houses.

(c) Soil is polluted by the pesticides and fertilisers that are used to grow crops or by garbage dumped by human or by factory waste.

Steps taken to reduce pollution are listed below:

  • Various laws have been enforced to keep a check on environmental pollution.
  • Promotion of CNG vehicles to reduce air pollution.
  • Strict actions against companies who violate environmental laws.

No rules or laws can help make our environment clean and free of pollution until and unless every individual in society takes responsibility on their part to keep their environment clean. Only voluntary actions can make our environment pollution free.

9. How was environment treated earlier? What has been the change in perception? Discuss.

Answer: The environment was treated as a ‘free’ entity and any industry or individual could pollute the environment without any restrictions. There were very few laws to protect and conserve the environment in India. The government also paid no attention to safeguarding the environment.

Now, there has been a change in perception. The government has introduced various laws to protect and conserve the environment, such as Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. The courts have given out a number of judgments upholding the right to a healthy environment as intrinsic to the fundamental right to life. Various laws and procedures to check pollution and clean rivers have been formed. The government can also impose a fine on those who pollute our precious environment.

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