History and Sport: The Story of Cricket Class 9 Chapter 7

Important Questions for Class 9 Chapter 7 History and Sport: The Story of Cricket

Question 1.
Name the country in which the cricket originated?
Answer:
The cricket originated in England.

Question 2.
Mention any two peculiarities of Test Cricket.
Answer:

  • A match can go on for five days, and still end in a draw.
  • No specification regarding the size or shape of the ground.

Question 3.
When were the laws of cricket drawn up? Mention any two laws.
Answer:
The laws were drawn up in 1774.

  • The stumps must be 22 inches and the bail across them should be six inches.
  • The ball must be between 5 to 6 ounces.

Question 4.
When was the world’s first cricket club formed?
Answer:
It was formed in Hambledon in 1760s in England.

Question 5.
Name the first club which became . the guardian of cricket’s regulations. When was it formed?
Answer:
Marylebone Cricket Club was the guardian of cricket regulations. It was formed in 1788, in London.

Question 6.
“The MCC’s revision of the laws brought in a series of changes in the game that occurred in the second half of the eighteenth century.” Mention any two such changes.
Answer:

  • During the 1760s and 1770s it became common to pitch the ball through the air, rather than roll it along the ground.
  • The weight of the ball was limited to between 5 1/2 to 5 3/4 A ounces, and the width of the bat to four inches.

Question 7.
Cricket’s connection with a rural past can be seen in the length of a test match and the size of a cricket ground. Justify.
Answer:

  • Originally, cricket matches had no time limit. This is because the rhythms of village life was slower.
  • Cricket was originally played on country commons, and unfenced land that was public property.

Question 8.
“But in the matter of protective equipment,cricket has been
influenced by technological change.”
Answer:

  • The invention of vulcanised rubber led to the introduction of pads in 1848 and protective gloves.
  • Soon after helmet made out of the metal and synthetic lightweight materials was also introduced.

Question 9.
Who were the amateurs?
Answer:
The rich players, who played cricket for leisure were known as amateurs.

Question 10.
Who were the professionals? [CBSE 2014,15]
Answer:
The poor who played cricket for a living were called professionals.

Question 11.
‘The rich were amateurs for two reasons’. Mention the two reasons.
Answer:

  • They considered sport a kind of leisure.
  • There was not enough money in the game for the rich to be interested.

Question 12.
“The laws of cricket always give the benefit of doubt to the batsman”. Why?
Answer:
The laws of cricket, give benefit of doubt to the batsman because amateurs, i.e. the rich tended to be batsmen. As most of the clubs were controlled by the rich, they moulded the laws according to their needs. ‘

Question 13.
‘Traditionally, the captain of the cricket team was a batsman.’ Give reasons.
Answer:
Traditionally, the game was played by amateurs and professionals. Amateurs were rich people who played the game for leisure. Amateurs tended to be batsmen. So to keep their social superiority,a batsman was chosen as the captain.

Question 14.
Name any two counties where cricket was spread by the Britishers.
Answer:
South Africa, Zimbabwe, Australia, New Zealand, West Indies and Kenya.

Question 15.
Who were the mulattos?
Answer:
These were light the skinned people. The first Non-White Club in the West Indies was established by these mulattos.

Question 16.
“Despite the exclusiveness of the white cricket elite in the West Indies, the game became hugely popular in the Caribbean.” Give two reasons.
Answer:

  • Success at cricket became a measure of racial equality and political progress.
  • At the time of their independence many of the political leaders of the Caribbean countries like Forbes Burnham and Eric Williams saw in the game a chance for self-respect and international standing. When the West Indies won its first Test series against England in 1950, it was celebrated as a national achievement, as a way of demonstrating that the West Indians were the equals of the white Englishmen.

Question 17.
“When the West Indies won its first Test series against England in 1950, it was celebrated as a national achievement.” Give two reasons.
Answer:

  • The West Indies team that won was captained by a white player.
  • The West Indies cricket team represented not one nation, but several dominions that later became independent countries.

Question 18.
Which was the first Indian cricket club?
Answer:
The first Indian club, the Calcutta cricket club, was established in 1792.

Question 19.
Which Indian community was the first to play cricket in India? Why? [CBSE2014]
Answer:
The Parsis, because they were close to Britishers due to their interest in trade and secondly, it was the first community to westernise.

Question 20.
Name any two teams that participated in the Pentangular Tournament.
Answer:

  •  The Europeans
  •  The Parsis
  •  The Hindus
  •  The Muslims
  •  The Rest

Question 21.
With reference to the Indian cricket answer the following questions.
(i) Who was India’s first Test Captain?
(ii)When did India enter the world of Test Cricket?
Answer:
(i) C.K. Nayudu
(ii) 1932

Question 22.
Why Mahatma Gandhi condemned the Pentangular competition of Calcutta?
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi, condemned the Pentangular Tournament as a communally divisive competition that was out of place in a time when nationalists were trying to unite India’s diverse population.

Question 23.
‘The year 1971 was a landmark year in the history of cricket’. Justify by giving example.
Answer:
It was the year when the first One-Day International was played between England and Australia.

Question 24.
When was the first One-Day World Cup played?
Answer:
1975.

Question 25.
Which country was following the racial segregation policy? Name any three countries which played against the country in spite of this policy.
Answer:
South Africa, was following the segregation policy.
New Zealand, Australia and England were played against South Africa.

Question 26.
The year 1970 and 1971 were notable for the world cricket. Give reasons.
Answer:

  • In the year, 1970 South Africa, which was following a policy of racial segregation, was expelled from the (ICC) International Cricket Council membership.
  • The year, 1971 is notable because the first one day international was played between England and Australia.

Question 27.
Who was Kerry Packer?
Answer:
Kerry Packer, an Australian television tycoon, who saw the money-making potential of cricket as a televised sport, signed up 51 of the world’s leading cricketers against the wishes of the national cricket boards, and for about two years, staged unofficial Tests and One-Day Internationals under the name of World Series Cricket.

Question 28.
‘In the last 50 years, the cricket’s centre of gravity has shifted to South Asia.’ Give two reasons.
Answer:

  • England and Australia no longer enjoy the veto power.
  • The name of the body which controls the cricket has been changed from the Imperial Cricket Conference to International Cricket Council.

Question 1.
When were the first laws of cricket drawn up? Mention any three such laws.
Or
Mention the first written Laws of Cricket’ drawn up in 1744. [CBSE March 2011,13,15]
Or
Describe the first written laws of cricket. [CBSE March 2011]
Answer:
The first written laws of cricket were drawn in 1774.

  1. The principals shall choose from amongst the gentleman present two umpires who shall absolutely decide all disputes.
  2. Stumps must be 22 inches high and the bail across them six inches.
  3. Balls must be between 5 to 6 ounces.

Question 2.
Mention any three peculiarities of Test Cricket.
Or
Why is cricket called a peculiar game? Give any three reasons. [CBSE 2014]
Answer:

  • A match can go on for five days and still end in a draw.
  • No specification regarding the size or shape of the ground.
  • There were no limits on the shape or size of the bat.

Question 3.
“Cricket has changed with changing times and yet fundamentally remained true to its origin in rural England”. Justify by giving examples.
Answer:

  • No specification for ground: Even after more than 300 years of its origin still there is no specification regarding the measurement of the playing ground.
  • Equipments: Cricket’s most important tools are all made of natural, pre-industrial materials. The bat is s made of wood as are the stumps and bails. The ball is made with leather, twine and cork. Even today, both bat and ball are hand-made, not industrially manufactured. The material of the bat changed slightly over time. Once it was cut out of a single piece of wood. Now it consists of two pieces, the blade which is made out of the wood of the willow tree and the handle which is made out of cane that became available as European colonialists and trading companies established themselves in Asia. Unlike golf and tennis, cricket has refused to remake its tools with industrial or man-made materials: plastic, fibre glass and metal have been firmly rejected.
  • Protective equipment: Some of its equipments have changed with the changing time like gloves, helmet and pads. They all are manufactured by machines.

Question 4.
‘The organisation of cricket in England reflected the nature of English society’. Explain.
Answer:

  • The English society at that time was divided into the rich and the poor. Similarly, there was also a division in cricket. The rich players who played for leisure were called amateurs and the poor who played for livings were called professionals.
  • As most of the administrative laws were favouring the rich class,
    Similarly most of the cricket laws
    Were in favour of the batsmen as Amateurs tended to be the batsmen.
  • Most of the hard work was done by the poor, similarly, in cricket, fielding and bowling was done by the professionals.
  • Only the rich were having the right to lead, similarly, in cricket only the batsmen were made the captain.

Question 5.
Mention any three features of post packer game of cricket.
Answer:

  • Cricket became a marketable game.
  • Colored dress, protective helmets, field restrictions, cricket under lights, became a standard part of the post Oackergame.
  • Television coverage beamed cricket into small towns and villages.

Question 6.
‘Cricket in India was organised on the principle of race and religion.’ Justify.
Or
How was the cricket used by the Britishers to spread their policy of racism?
Answer:

  • When there was a quarrel between the Bombay Gymkhana and the Parsi cricketers over the use of public park, the Britishers favoured the Bombay. Gymkhana.
  • They regarded religious comm¬unities as separate national-iris. That is why they used to approve applications for clubs on the basis of community.
  • They encouraged pentangular tournament as it was based on comm¬unities.
  • The first class cricket was also organised on communal and racial fines. The teams that played colonial India’s greatest and most famous first-class cricket tournament did not represent regions, but religious communities.

Question 7.
‘The centre of gravity in cricket has shifted away from the old Anglo- Australian axis.’ Justify by giving examples. [CBSE 2015]
Answer:

  • The cricket headquarters has been shifted from London to tax free Dubai.
  • England and Australia have lost their veto power right.
  • Innovations like IPL, doosra and reverse swing have mainly come from the subcontinental teams of India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
  • India has the largest viewership for the game amongst the cricket playing nations and the largest market in the world.

Question 1.
Explain the journey of cricket progress in India.
Answer:

(i) Cricket at initial stage: Cricket in colonial India was organised on the principle of race and religion. The first record we have of cricket being played in India is from 1721, an account of recreational cricket played by: England sailors in Cambay.

(ii) The Cricket Clubs: The first Indian club, the Calcutta Cricket Club, was established in 1792. Through the
eighteenth century, cricket in India was almost wholly a sport played by British military men and civil servants in all-white clubs and gymkhanas.

(iii)  Cricket by Parsis: Parsis were the first to play cricket in India. They were close to Britishers because of their interest in trade and western education. They founded the Oriental Cricket Club in Bombay in 1848 and later on Parsi Gymkhana.

(iv) Clubs by other communities: The establishment of the Parsi Gymkhana became a precedent for other Indians who in turn established clubs based on the idea of religious community. By the 1890s, the Hindus and Muslims were busy gathering funds and support for a Hindu Gymkhana and an Islam Gymkhana. The British did not consider colonial India as a nation.

(v) Quadrangular Tournament: This history of gymkhana cricket led to the first-class cricket being organised on communal and racial lines. The teams that played colonial India’s greatest and most famous first-class cricket tournament did not represent regions, as teams in today’s Ranji Trophy currently do, but religious communities. The tournament was initially called the Quadrangular, because it was played by four teams: the Europeans, the Parsis, the Hindus and the Muslims. It later became the Pentangular when a fifth team was added, namely, the Rest, which comprised all the communities left over, such as the Indian Christians.

Question 2.
What changes were brought by (MCC) Marylebone Cricket Club-in cricket laws in the later half of the 18th century? [CBSE 2015]
Or
Mention any three changes brought about in the game of Cricket by the MCC’s revision of the laws during the second half of the 18th century. [CBSE March 2011]
Answer:

  • It was decided to pitch the ball in the air instead of rolling it along the ground. It gave the bowlers the options of length, deception through the air and increase in the pace.
  • The curved bat was replaced by the straight one.
  • The weight of the ball was limited to 51/2 to 53/4 ounces, while the width of the bat was limited to four inches.
  • In 1774, the first leg before wicket law was published.
  • At about the same time, a third stump became common.
  • By 1780, three days had become the length of major matches.

Question 3.
“The social and economic history of England in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, cricket’s early years, shaped the game and gave cricket its unique nature.” Explain. [CBSE 2014]
Answer:

  • Cricket and rural life: Cricket’s connection with a rural past can be seen in the length of a Test match. Originally, cricket matches had no time limit. The game went on for as long as it took to bowl out a side twice. The rhythms of village life were slower and cricket’s rules were made before the Industrial Revolution.
  • Size of ground and the common land: In the same way, cricket’s vagueness about the size of a cricket ground is a result of its village origins! Cricket wag originally played on country commons, unfenced land that was public property. The size of the commons varied from one village to another, so there were no designated boundaries or boundary hits.
  • Cricket’s tools: Cricket’s most important tools are all made of natural, pre-industrial materials. The bat is made of wood as are the stumps and the bails. The ball is made with leather, twine and cork.
  • Division of the players: Cricket players were also divided on their social and economic status. The rich who could afford to play it for pleasure were called amateurs and the poor who played it for a living were called professionals.
  • Cricket and the British Empire : Team sport like cricket and rugby were not treated as just as outdoor play, but as an organised way of teaching English boys the discipline, the importance of hierarchy, the skills, the codes of honour and, the leadership qualities that helped them build and run the British empire.

Question 4.
How have advances in tech-nology, especially television technology, affected the development of contemporary cricket?
Answer:

  • Expansion in the audience: Television coverage has changed the cricket. New cricket is watched in almost all the continents of the world.
    It has expanded the audience for the game by beaming cricket into small towns and villages.
  •  A big industry: Television has made cricket, a big industry. Coloured dress, protective helmets, field restrictions, cricket under fights, became a standard part of the Post Packer game. Cricket boards became rich by selling television rights to television companies. Television channels are making money by selling television spots to companies who were happy to pay large sums of money to air commercials for their products to cricket’s captive television audience. Continuous television coverage has made cricketers celebrities who, besides being paid better by their cricket boards, are now making even larger sums of money by doing commercials for a wide range of products, from tyres to colas on television.
  • Shift in the centre of gravity : Television has shifted the balance of power in cricket. Since India had the largest viewership for the game amongst the cricket-playing nations, and the largest market in the cricketing world, the game’s centre of gravity shifted to South Asia. This shift was symbolised by the shifting of the ICC headquarters from London to tax-free Dubai.
  • Improvement in the game : The ICC, which is the governing body has made it compulsory to telecast all international matches. Now, the third empire has been introduced and television is also being used to improve the game.

Question 5.
The Parsis were the first Indian community to set up a cricket club in India. Explain their contribution to cricket. [CBSE March 2011]
Or
Who set the first cricket club in India? Explain the contribution of them in the field of cricket. [CBSE March 2011]
Answer:
The Parsis, a small community of the Zoroastrians, was the first Indian community to start playing cricket. They founded the first Indian cricket club, Known as the Oriental Cricket Club in Bombay (Mumbai) in 1848. The chief causes for the same were the following:

  • They came into a close contact with the British because of their interest in trade. x
  • They were the first Indian community to westernise and learn English language and literature.
  • They built their own Gymkhana to play cricket.
  • A Parsi cricket team beat the British cricket team in 1889. This triumph filled their heart and soul with pride.
  • The Parsis thus became the pioneers of Indian cricket. Their example encouraged other Indians to establish their own clubs.

Question 1.
How did Indian Enter test cricket during the British period? [CBSE2014]
Answer:

  • While some English team games like hockey and football became international games, played all over the world, cricket remained a colonial game, limited to countries that had once been part of the British empire.
  • The origins of Indian cricket, that is, cricket played by Indians are to be found in Bombay and the first Indian community to start playing the game was the small community of Zoroastrians, the Parsis.
  • India entered the world of Test cricket in 1932, a decade and a half before it became an independent nation. This was possible because Test cricket from its origins in 1877 was organised as a contest between different parts of the British empire, not sovereign nations.

Question 2.
How was the game of cricket used by the Caribbean’s a measure of racial equality and political progress? Explain.
Answer:

  • While British imperial officials brought the game to the colonies, they made little effort to spread the game, especially in colonial territories where the subjects of empire were mainly non-white, such as India and the West Indies. Here, playing cricket became a sign of superior social and racial status, and the Afro-Caribbean population was discouraged from participating in organised club cricket, which remained dominated by white plantation owners and their servants.
  • At the time of their independence many of the political leaders of Caribbean countries like Forbes Burnham and Eric Williams saw in the game a chance for self-respect and international standing.
  • When the West Indies won its first Test series against England in 1950, it was celebrated as a national achievement, as a way of demonstrating that West Indians were the equals of white Englishmen.

Question 1.
What is importance of sports in our life?
Or
Explain the moral values which sports teaches us?
Answer:

  • It is way of amusement and keep us fit.
  • Many see sports an organised way of
    teaching children the discipline, the importance of hierarchy, the skills, the codes of honour and the leadership qualities.
  • Success at sport became a measure of racial equality and political progress. At the time of their independence many of the political leaders of Caribbean countries like Forbes Burnham and Eric Williams saw in the game a Chance for selfrespect and international standing. When the West Indies won its first Test series against England in 1950, it was celebrated as a national |achievement, as a way of demonstrating that West Indians were the equals of white Englishmen.
  • It is also a way of expressing our social loyalty towards our nation.
  • History of sports also reflects the nature of society.

Question 2.
Why is it said that the battle of Waterloo was won on the playing field of Eton though the fact was different?
Or
“The battle of Waterloo was on the playing fields of Eton”. Explain the statement. [CBSE March 2011,2012] Or
Why is it said that the battle of Waterloo was won on the playing ground of Eton? [CBSE March 2011]
Answer:

  • Eton was the most famous school of England where the best type of military training was given to the students.
  • It was here that the high values of life were taught to the students.
  • Thomas Arnold, the founder of the Modern Public Schools, and the headmaster of the famous Rugby School saw in the Cricket the best way to teach the high values of social service, discipline, courage, qualities of leadership, etc., to the students.
    Real fact : Actually, England won these wars because of its better economic condition, because of the iron works of Scotland and Wales, the mills of Lancashire and the great financial houses of the city of London who greatly added to the financial resources of the country.

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