Physical Features of India Class 9 Geography Chapter 2

Class 9 – Geography Chapter 2 Physical Features of India

Question 1.
Which are the two main causes of rock displacement?
Folding, faulting and volcanic activity.

Question 2.
Mention the three types of plate movements.

  • Convergent,
  • Divergent,
  • Transform.

Question 3.
Name any four factors which are responsible for creating and modifying the relief to its present form.

  • Weathering,
  • Erosion,
  • Deposition,
  • Geological activities like earthquake, volcanic eruption etc.

Question 4.
What is convergent boundary?
It is a boundary which is formed due to the movement of plates towards each other.

Question 5.
What is transformed boundary?
It is a boundary which is formed when two plates move horizontally passing each other.

Question 6.
What is divergent boundary?
It is a boundary which is formed when two plates move away from each other.

Question 7.
What was the Gondwanaland?
It was an ancient super continent located in southern hemisphere which included the present day South America, Africa, Australia and Antarctica.

Question 8.
Which continents of today were part of the Gondwanaland?

  • South America,
  • Africa,
  • Australia,
  • Asia.

Question 9.
What is Khadar?
The younger alluvium of the flood plains is known as the Khadar.

Question 10.
Name some of the depositional features formed by the rivers in the plain.
Flood plains, levees, channel bars and bluffs.

Question 11.
What is distributary?
The rivers in their lower course split into numerous channels due to the deposition of silt. These channels are known as distributries. For example, Hoogly, Meghna is a distributary of river Ganga.

Question 12.
What is meant by doab?
The land between two rivers is locally known as the doab.

Question 13.
What is the Terai Zone?
It is a zone next to the Bhabar zone which is wet and marshy. It has a thick forest cover and a variety of wildlife.

Question 14.
What is a Bhangar? HOTS
The older alluvium soil of the northern plains is called the Bhangar.

Question 15.
Name the part of the Himalayas lying between the Indus and Satluj rivers.
Punjab Himalayas lies between the Indus and Su’tluj rivers. From west to east, this is also known as Kashmir Himalaya and Himachal Himalaya respectively.

Question 16.
Name the most continuous range of Himalayas consisting of the lofty peaks.
Himadri or Greater or Inner Himalayas.

Question 17.
Name the mountain range which bounds Central Highlands on the north west.
Aravalli Hills.

Question 18.
How long are east-west distances covered by the Himalayas?
2,400 km.

Question 19.
Which river marks the easternmost boundary of the Himalayas?
The Brahmaputra.

Question 20.
Name the part of the Himalayas lying between Teesta and Dihang rivers.
Assam Himalayas.

Question 21.
Which part of Himalayas is located between Kali and Satluj rivers? HOTS
Kumaon Himalayas.

Question 22.
Which is the most important and longest mountain range of Himachal Himalaya?
The Pir Panjal range forms the longest and the most important range.

Question 23.
Name the three parallel ranges of the Himalayas and give their other names.

  • The Himadri (Greater Himalayas),
  • The Himachal (Lesser Himalayas),
  • The Shiwaliks (Outer Himalayas).

Question 24.
Why are the Himalayas called the young fold mountains?
The Himalayas are not very old, they are of recent birth. So they are called the young fold mountains.

Question 25.
Which is the highest peak of India?
Kanchenjunga (8,598 m).

Question 26.
Which is the northernmost range of Himalayas?
The Himadri.

Question 27.
Which is the outermost range of Himalayas?
The Shiwalik.

Question 28.
Which is the highest peak of the world? Where is it situated?
Mount Everest (8848 m) located in Nepal is the highest peak in the world.

Question 29.
Which is the highest peak of the Deccan Plateau?
The Anaimudi hill in Kerala.

Question 30.
How is the northern plain divided on the basis of the differences in the relief?

  • Bhabhar,
  • Terai,
  • Bhangar,
  • Khadar.

Question 31.
Name some hill stations of the Himachal range.
Mussoorie, Chakrata, Nainital, Ranikhet and Almora.

Question 32.
In which hill does the Narmada river rise?
Amarkantak hills in Madhya Pradesh.

Question 33.
In which state Garo, Khasi and Jaintia hills are located?

Question 34.
Name the Himalayan range lying between Himadri and Shiwaliks.
Himachal or lesser Himalayans.++++++++++++++++++++

Question 35.
Name two famous valleys in the state of Himachal Pradesh.
Kullu and Kangra.

Question 36.
What is the northern and southern extension of the western coast called?
Northern → Konkan coast, Southern → Malabar coast.

Question 37.
Which plateau lies between the Aravalli and the Vindhya ranges? HOTS
The Malwa Plateau.

Question 38.
Name some of the important passes of the Himalayas from west to east.
Shipkila, Nathula and Bomdila.

Question 39.
What are Duns?
These are broad valleys between Himachal and the Shiwalik ranges.

Question 40.
What are duns made up of? Give an example of the duns.
Duns are made up of gravel and alluvial soil. The Dehradun valley is an example of duns.

Question 41.
Name any two hills which comprise the ‘PurvanchaT.
The Patkai, Naga, Manipur and the Mizo hills, (any two)

Question 42.
Why are the Northern Plains primarily an agricultural belt?
The Northern Plains have a thick soil cover composed of fine silt or alluvium brought down by the Himalayan rivers. This alluvial soil is very fertile. Hence, this is primarily an agricultural belt.

Question 43.
Name the major rivers of North India.
The Indus, the Sutlej, the Ganga, the Yamuna, the Kosi, the Teesta and ; the Brahmaputra are the major rivers of North India.

Question 44.
What is the width of the northern plains?
Its width varies from 240 to 320 kilometres. It gets narrower towards the east.

Question 45.
By which name, the coastal plain is known as in:
(i) Northern part
(ii) Southern part
(i) Nortern part — Northern Circar.
(ii) Southern part — Coromandal Coast.

Question 46.
What is ‘barchan’?
It is crest shaped sand dune with cusps of the crescent pointing downward.

Question 47.
Mention any two characteristics of the Aravalli Hills.

  • The Aravalli Hills are eroded hills.
  • They extend from Gujarat to Delhi in a southwest — northeast direction.

Question 48.
What is the local name of the Western Ghats in:
(i) Maharashtra and Karnataka.
(ii) Along Kerala-Tamil Nadu border.
(iii) Tamil Nadu.
(i) Sahyadri,
(ii) Anaimalai and Cardamom hills,
(iii) Nilgiri.

Question 49.
Name any two peaks of the Western GhaEST

  • Anaimudi (2,695 m),
  • Doda Betta (2,637 m).

Question 50.
What are the two divisions of Peninsular Plateau?
The Central Highlands and the Deccan Plateau.

Question 51.
Which physical feature marks the Western and the Eastern edges of the Deccan Plateau?
The Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats.

Question 52.
Which type of rainfall is received by the Western Ghats?
Orographic rain.

Question 53.
Where are the Lakshadweep Islands situated?
In the Arabian Sea.

Question 54.
Name the island group of India having a coral origin.
The Lakshadweep Islands.

Question 55.
What are Coral polyps?
Coral polyps are short-lived microscopic organisms which live in colonies.

Question 56.
Where are the Andaman Islands situated?
In the Bay of Bengal.

Question 1.
Explain the theory of Plate Tectonics. HOTS
According to this theory, the crust of the earth has been formed out of seven major and some minor plates. The movement of these plates led to folding, faulting and volcanic activity. These are classified in three categories:

  • Convergent Boundary: When plates come .towards each other, also called folding movement.
  • Divergent Boundary: When plates move away from each other, also called faulting movement.
  • Transform Boundary: In the event of coming together, they may collide or may slide under each other.

Question 2.
What is the difference between a tributary and a distributary?
A Tributary: A tributary is that river which joins the main river, and increases the volume of water. It is generally found in the upper or the middle course of a river. For example, the Yamuna is the main tributary of the river Ganga.

A Distributary: It is that river which originates from a main river. It is formed near the river’s mouth before it falls into the sea. It is found in the lower course of the river. For example, the Hooghly is the main distributary of the Ganga.

Question 3.
Name the three major divisions of Himalayas from the north to south.
The three major divisions of Himalayas from north to south are:

  • The northernmost range which is known as the Great Himalayas or Inner Himalayas or Himadri. It is the most continuous range consisting of the loftiest peaks. It has an average height of 6000 meters. It consists of all the prominent Himalayan peaks.
  • The southern range of Himadri which is known the Himachal or the lesser Himalayas lies to the South of Himadri. It forms the most rugged mountain system. The ranges are mainly composed of highly compressed and altered rocks. The altitude varies between 3700 and 4500 meters and its average width is 50 kms.
  • The outermost range of the Himalayas is known as Shiwaliks. Its height varies between 900 meters and 1100 meters. This range is composed of unconsolidated sediments brought down by rivers from the main Himalayan ranges. These are also called foothill ranges. They represent the southernmost divison of Himalaya.

Question 4.
Name the southernmost range of Himalaya. Mention any four features of this range.
The southernmost range of Himalayas is called Shiwaliks.

  • The outermost range of the Himalayas is called the Outer Himalayas or Shiwaliks.
  • They extend over a width of 10-15 km.
  • Their altitude varies between 900-1100 metres.
  • They are discontinuous ranges and are composed of unconsolidated sediments, gravel and alluvium brought down by the rivers from main Himalayan ranges located farther north.
  • Longitudinal valleys known as Duns lie between the lesser Himalayas and Shiwaliks. e.g., Dehradun, Kote Dun, Path Dun. (any four)

Question 5.
How is Himadri range different from Himachal range? Mention any three differences.

(i)This range is the highest of Himalayas with an average height of 6,000 metres.Himachal is not so high as Himadri. Its average height is between 3,700 and 4,500 metres.
(ii)This range contains loftiest peaks. Example: Kanchenjunga and Nanda Devi.This range contains hill stations Example: Shimla and Nainital.
(iii)This range is always covered with snow.It snows here in winter.

Question 6.
Differentiate between Western Himalayas and Eastern Himalayas.

S. No.Western HimalayasEastern Himalayas
(i)These are spread over Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh.These are spread over West Bengal, Sikkim, Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh.
(ii)The Western Himalayas are very high.These are of medium height.
(iii)The Indus and the Sutlej are main rivers which pass throught the Western Himalayas and fall into the Arabian Sea.The Brahmaputra is the main river which passes through these and falls into the Bay of Bengal.
(iv)The average annual rainfall is less than 100 cm.The average annual rainfall is more than 200 cm.
(v)Srinagar, Shimla, Manali are the famous hill stations found in the Western Himalayas.Darjeeling and Shillong are the famous hill stations found in the Eastern Himalayas.

Question 7.
Write about the main features of the Shiwaliks.

  • It is the outermost range of the Himalayas.
  • The average altitude of the Shiwalik range varies between 900 m and 1,100 m above the sea level, and extends over a width of about 10-50 km.
  • This range is made of unconsolidated material such as mud, silt and soft rocks and is prone to earthquakes and landslides.
  • Some narrow valleys are found between the Shiwaliks and the Himachal. They are called ‘duns’. For example, Dehradun, is situated in one such valley.

Question 8.
How did the northern plains come to existence? Write two points briefly. Also mention two features of these plains.
(i) The northern plains have been formed by the interplay of the three major river systems, i.e., the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.
(ii) The northern plain is formed of the alluvial soil brought by these rivers.

  • These plains are very fertile.
  • These are densely polulated.

Question 9.
Why are Northern Plains agriculturally productive parts of India? Explain.

  • The deposition of alluvium in a vast basin lying at the foothills of the Himalaya over millions of years, formed this fertile plain. It spreads over an area of 7 lakh sQuestion km.
  • The plain being about 2400 km. long and 240 to 320 km. broad, is a densely populated physiographic division.
  • With a rich soil cover combined with adequate water supply and favourable climate, it is agriculturally a very productive part of India.

Question 10.
Which three river systems form the northern plains of India? Mention main features.
The northern plain has been formed by the interplay of the three major river systems—the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.

  • The river Indus and its tributaries form the western part of the northern plain which is referred to as the Punjab plains. The larger part of this plain lies in Pakistan.
  • The Ganga plain extends between Ghaggar and Teesta rivers. It spreads over the states of North India; Haryana, Delhi, U.P., Bihar, partly Jharkhand and West Bengal.
  • The Brahmaputra plain particularly lies mainly in Assam. It forms the largest riverine islands in the world.

Question 11.
State any three differences between Himadri range and Shiwalik range.

Himadri RangeShiwalik Range
(i) It is the innermost or northernmost range of Himalayas.It is the outermost range of Himalayas.
(ii) Its average height is 6,000 metres. Shiwalik RangeIts height varies between 900 and 1100 metres.
(iii) The core of this part of Himalayas is composed of granite.These ranges are composed of uncon¬solidated sediments brought down by rivers from the main Himalayan ranges located farther north.

Question 12.
What is a delta? Name some deltas of the Indian sub-continent.
The triangular deposition of sediments at the mouth of a river is known as a delta.

  • The Ganga-Brahmaputra Delta.
  • The Mahanadi Delta.
  • The Godavari Delta.
  • The Krishna Delta.
  • The Kaveri Delta.

Question 13.
What are Purvanchal hills? Mention any two features of these hills.
Mountains along the eastern boundary of India are called the Purvanchal. There are medium heights. Some of the important mountains of Purvanchal are:

  • The Patkoi Bum and the Naga Hills in the North.
  • The Mizo Hills in the South.
  • The Jaintia, the Khasi and the Garo hills from east to west.


  • They comprise of sandstone and sediments.
  • They are covered with dense forests.
  • They comprise of Patkoi Hills, Manipur hills etc. (any two)

Question 14.
Distinguish between Central highlands and Deccan Plateau on the basis of rivers that flow and hill ranges.

Central HighlandsDeccan Plateau
(i) The Central Highlands are wider in the west but narrower in the east.The Deccan plateau is a triangular land mass.
(ii) The rivers draining this region are the Chambal, the Sind, the Betwa and the Ken.The rivers draining this region are the Tapi, the Krishna, the Godavari and the Kaveri.
(iii) The hills lying in this region are the Vindhya range and the Aravalli hills.The hills lying in this region are the Mahadev, the Kaimur and the Maikal.

Question 15.
Give an account of the Deccan Plateau.
An account of Deccan Plateau of India:

  • It is a triangular landmass that lies to the south of the river Narmada. The Satpura range flanks its broad base in the north while the Mahadev forms its eastern extensions.
  • The Deccan Plateau is higher in the west and slopes gently eastwards.
  • An extension of the Plateau is also visible in the north-east. It is locally known as the Meghalaya, Karbi Anglong Plateau and North Cachar Hills.
  • It is separated by a fault from the Chhotanagpur Plateau. Three prominent hill ranges form the West to East are the Garo, the Khasi and the Jaintia Hills. The Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats mark the Western and Eastern edges of the Deccan Plateau respectively. The Western Ghats lie parallel to the western coast and Eastern Ghats, lie parallel to the eastern coast.

Question 16.
Compare the main features of the Western Coastal Plain and Eastern Coastal Plain.

Western Coastal PlainEastern Coastal Plain
(i) The plain is located between the Western Ghat and the Arabian Sea coast.The plain is located between the Eastern Ghats and the coast of Bay of Bengal.
(ii) It is a narrow plain with an average width of about 64 km.It is comparatively broader plain with average width of around 80-100 km.
(iii) There are several lagoons especially in the southern part.Very few lagoons are formed.
(iv) Kandla, Mumbai, Marmagao, Cochin are the main ports.Tuticorin, Chennai, Paradeep, Vishakha- patnam are the major ports on the eastern coast.
(v) No big delta is formed.Large deltas are formed.

Question 17.
Name the four major states which are the parts of the eastern coastal plains. Mention the two divisions of these coastal plains.
The plains extend from the state of Tamil Nadu in the southern part to the state of West Bengal in the northern region of India. Other states include Andhra Pradesh and Odisha. The three main divisions into which the eastern coastal plains can be divided are Utkal Plains, Tamil Nadu Plains and the Andhra Plains.
(i) Utkal Plains: This is the coastal stretch of the state of Odisha and consists of the Mahanadi delta. The famous feature of the region is the Chilka Lake lying on the south of the Mahanadi Delta.

(ii) Tamil Nadu Plains: The plains extend from the Pulicat Lake to Kanyakumari. The prominent feature of the region is the Kaveri delta, the fertile soil and irrigational facilities of which make it a granary in South India.

(iii) Andhra Plains: The plains extend from the Utkal Plains on the North to Pulicat Lake in the south. The delta formation by the rivers Kaveri and Godavari happens to be the important feature of the region.

Question 18.
Describe any three features of coastal plains of India.

  •  The Peninsular plateau is flanked by a strip of narrow coastal strips running along the Arabian Sea on the west and the Bay of Bengal on the east.
  • The western coast, sandwiched between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, is a narrow plain. It consists of three sections. The northern part of the coast is called the Konkan (Mumbai-Goa), the central stretch is called the Kannad Plain while the southern stretch is referred to as the Malabar coast.
  • The plains along the Bay of Bengal are wide and level.
  • In the northern part, it is referred to as the Northern Gircar, while the southern part is known as the Coromandel Coast.
  • Large rivers such as the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri have formed extensive delta on this coast. Lake Chilka is an important feature along the eastern coast.

Question 19.
Name two island groups possessed by India. Mention one feature of each.

  • The Andaman and Nicobar Islands: This group of island is composed of small coral islands.
  • Lakshadweep Islands: These are bigger in size and are more numerous and scattered.

Question 20.
Write a note on corals.

  • Corals are small, sedentary marine animals with a calcareous homy skeleton.
  • These thrive in warm shallow water and grow into large colonies called coral reefs.
  • They secrete hard rock like substance. The coral secretion and their skeletons form coral deposits in the form of reefs.
  • They are mainly of three kinds: barrier reef, fringing reef and atolls.
  • The Great Barrier Reef of Australia and Lakshadweep Islands are a good example of the first kind of coral reefs.

Question 21.
Explain the formation of the Peninsular Plateau. Write any four of its distinct features.
The Peninsular Plateau was formed due to the breaking and drifting of the Gondwana land. It is a tableland composed of the old crystalline, igneous and metamorphic rocks.

  • It has broad and shallow hills, valleys and rounded hills.
  • It consists of the two broad divisions namely, the Central Highland and Deccan Plateau.
  • It has black soil area known as Deccan Trap which is of volcanic origin.
  • The flow of rivers is westward.

Question 1.
“The land of India displays great physical variations”. Justify this statement with five examples. HOTS
Physical variations of land of India are:

  • Geologically, the Peninsular Plateau constitutes one of the ancient landmasses on the earth’s surface. It was supposed to be one of the most stable land blocks.
  • The Himalayas and the Northern Plains are the most recent landforms.
  • From the yiew point of geology, Himalayan Mountains form an unstable zone.
  • The whole mountain system of Himalaya represents a very youthful topography with high peaks, deep valleys and fast flowing rivers.
  • The Northern Plains are formed of alluvial deposits.
  • The Peninsular Plateau is composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks with gently rising hills and wide valleys, (any five)

Question 2.
“Each physiographic region of India complements the other and makes the country richer in its natural resources.” Justify this statement with five examples.
‘The diverse physical features of India are of immense value’.
Justify the statement by giving suitable examples.
Importance of diverse physical features of India is as follows:

  • The northern mountains are the major sources of water and forest wealth.
  • The northern plains are the granaries of the country. They provide the base for early civilisations.
  • The plateau is a storehouse of minerals which has played a crucial role in the industrialisation of the country.
  • The coastal region and island groups provide sites for fishing and port activities.
  • The deserts are the storehouse of solar energy.

Question 3.
Explain the three types of plates and write the effects of movements of plates.
The plate movements are classified into three types:

  • Some plates come towards each other and form convergent boundaries.
  • Some plates move away from each other and form divergent boundary.
  • At times, they may also move horizontally pass each other and form transform boundary.

When two plates come together, they are known as convergent plates. They are also known as constructive plates. When two plates move far away from each other, they are known as divergent plates. When two plates coming towards each other collide or burst pass, they are known as transform plate. The movement of plates causes volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, formation of mountains etc.

Question 4.
Distinguish between Bhabhar and Terai.

(i) It lies to the south of Shiwalik range.The belt exist to the south of Bhabhar area.
(ii) The width ranges between 8 to 16 km.It is almost parallel to the Bhabhar.
(iii) The area is highly coarse in nature due to many pebbles and ‘kankars’ found over hereThe area has got highly fine sediments due to the deposition made by several streams.
(iv) Vegetation found here is very less.Very dense vegetation is found in Terai region.
(v) Main feature is that river disappears in the Bhabhar region because big pores present in it.Since the river re-emerges back in this region, the area becomes highly swampy and marshy.

Question 5.
Describe any five features of northern plains of India.
Features of northern plains of India are:
(i) The northern plains have been formed from the alluvium deposited by the mountain rivers.
(ii) They are located between the Himalayan rivers in the north and the Peninsular Plateau in the south.
(iii) They turned the soil on the surfaced land fertile for growing a rich harvest of variety of crops. This led to the development of the Indus river valley civilization.
(iv) They are made up of deposits of alluvium and cover an area of 7 lakh sQuestion km.
(v) They are densely populated physiographic division of India and are believed to be highly productive in terms of agriculture.
(vi) The North Indian plains have the Indus river system in the west and the Ganga, Brahmaputra river system in the East.
(vii) The first include Jhelum, Chenab, Rabi, Beas. The Indus flows into the Arabian Sea.
The second includes Ganga-Brahmaputra which combines with Meghna at the point when it drains into the Bay of Bengal. They form the world’s largest and fastest growing delta.
On the basis of difference of relief, they are divided into four parts—Bhabhar, Terai, Bhangar and Khadar.
(viii) The northern plain is divided into three sections— Punjab plain, Ganga plain and Brahmaputra plain. The Ganga plain has diverse relief features. It has four belts:

  • Bhabhar is a belt of pebbles extending from 8-16 kms in width in which stream disappears.
  • Terai is a wet, swampy, marshy region with thick forests and wildlife.
  • Bhangar is a terrace-like feature made of old alluvium. It contains calcareous deposits called Kankar.
  • Khadar is the flood plain which renewed everywhere and is very fertile.

Question 6.
Which is the oldest land mass of India? Name its two hroad divisions and explain any three features of each.
The Great Peninsular Plateau lies to the south of the great plains and is , the oldest land mass of India. It is triangular in shape. The river
Narmada divides it into two parts:

  • The Cental Highlands and
  • The Deccan Plateau.

The Central Highlands:

  • It is made up of hard igneous and metamorphic rocks.
  • It comprises the Malwa Plateau, the small plateau of Bundelkhand and the Chhota Nagpur Plateau while the Western Ghats extend to the west of the Deccan Plateau.
  • Chambal, Sind and Betwa are three important rivers which flow through the Central Highlands.
  • It has been’drained by tributaries of Yamuna and Ganga.
  • Bundelkhand in southern UP and Baghelkhand in northern Madhya Pradesh.

The Deccan Plateau:

  • It is a triangular landmass that lies to the south of river Narmada.
  • It is higher in the west and slopes gendy eastwards.
  • It is the largest unit of the Peninsular Plateau of India.
  • Satpura range, Mahadev hills, Maikal range covers northern edge.
  • It is the oldest block made up of igneous and metamorphic rocks.

Question 7.
Describe any five features of the Central highlands of India.
Features of Central Highlands:

  • The part of the Peninsular Plateau lying to the north of the Narmada river covering major area of the Malwa Plateau is known as the Central Highland.
  • The Vindhyan range is bounded by the Central Highland on the south and the Aravallis on the northwest. The further westward extension gradually merges with the sandy and rocky desert of Rajasthan.
  • The flow of the rivers draining this region, namely Chambal, the Sind, the Betwa and Ken is from southwest to northeast, thus indicating the slope.
  • The Central Highlands are wider in the West but narrower in the East.
  • The eastward extensions of this plateau are locally known as the Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand.

Question 8.
Describe the features of Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats in reference to height, slope, continuity, rivers and vegetation.

FeaturesWestern GhatsEastern Ghats
(i) HeightTheir height is 900 to 1,100 m. The highest peak of this region is from Anaimudi with a height of 2,659 km.The Eastern Ghats are lower in height than the Western Ghats. It ranges from 600 to 900 m. Mahendragiri is the highest peak in Eastern Ghats.
(ii) SlopeThey have steep slop as height increases from North to South.They have a gentle slope.
(iii) ContinuityThey are continous and can be crossed through passes only.They are irregular and discontinous and dissected by the rivers.
(iv) RiversThey lie parallel to Western Coast and are source for some rivers.They stretch from Mahanadi valley to Niligiris in South. The rivers flow through easily.
(v) VegetationWestern Ghats have tropical evergreen forests. They are evergreen to deciduous forests.Eastern Ghats have scrub vegetation due to overgrazing and deforestation.

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